Anthes Family Tree : The Family of Friedrich Ludwig (Louie)
There is no record of the activities of Friedrich Ludwig and Catherine Ellen Neil in the first year or so following their respective arrivals from Germany and Ireland. It can only be guessed at what their first impressions were as they each sailed sedately into the harbour, relieved and thankful to have at last reached calm waters. The chance to find stable ground, recover the ability to walk in a straight line without the pitching and rolling and a chance to change their diet must have been foremost in their minds.
The view from the decks of a Sydney so much different from today would have shown in the clutter around the harbour with the mass of tall ships and riggings while the skyline would have been the exact opposite with few tall buildings and the odd church spire. Around the docks, the yelling and feverish activity of cargo being manhandled would have left a lasting impression as they were to descend the gangways for the last time. For each, their first priority would have been to seek out accommodation and this was probably gained in boarding houses within walking distance of the docks. In the year that Friedrich Ludwig arrived, 1855, the first steam train service in New South Wales opened between Sydney and Granville, a distance of approximately 22 kilometres. The expansion of that rail system through western New South Wales later in the century would have an influence on the lives of a number of descendants.
Having secured accommodation, each would have sought employment quickly to ensure their survival. For Friedrich Ludwig this came in the form of a gardening / labouring position with the authority controlling parks and gardens in Waverley. having arrived in April, his acclimatization is thought to have been quicker than Catherine Ellen who may have arrived in October the following year. The cooler, wetter climate of autumn being a more preferable season than mid-Spring with the hot, humid summer looming.Catherine Ellen found employment in Waverley also, as a domestic servant and it is likely that this position also included live-in accommodation which would have been some relief from the costs of boarding.
While language difficulties would have affected Friedrich Ludwig's lifestyle immediately, no such difficulty would have concerned Catherine except perhaps to those who struggled to understand English spoken with an Irish accent. it is probable that Friedrich Ludwig learnt his first English words on the outward passage from the sailors on board but his advancement would have come from contact with workmates. By the time of his meeting with Catherine some eighteen months after his arrival, it is likely that he was most proficient in English though the accent clash of both probably caused some misunderstandings and some humour.
As part of her domestic duties, Catherine was required to take children to a local park for the walking exercise or in a pram for the fresh air. It is likely that during these excursions, she would be joined by other sservants from nearby residences performing the same tasks. Whilst hardly expecting that she would have received the wolf whistles given to young ladies from workers on twentieth-century building sites, the presence of young ladies in the parks would at least have caught the attention of those young men working there. It has been passed down that this indeed was the circumstance in which the young Friedrich Ludwig and Catherine Ellen first met and it is likely that their further meetings took place in Waverley on Sundays, their only rest day.
If Catherine Ellen had arrived on the "Vocalist" in October 1856, the meeting, courtship and ultimate marriage of the couple was accomplished within six months of her arrival in Australia. Their marriage took place in Surry Hills at the Ebenezer Chapel, Riley Street on 25 June, 1857 when both were aged twenty years. The date and month of Catherine's birth in 1836 is unknown but she was born in the latter part of the year. Their marriage was officiated by the reverend Samual Humphries and witnessed by Elizabeth Hervey, a probable servant friend of Catherine, and Saclo C Anthes, thought to be the groom's brother Jakob. The spelling of the groom's name is given as Friedrig Lewis, the first of the variations that records show. Friedrich Ludwig was lsited as a bachelor, a gardener of Waverley and Catherine as a spinster, a servant also from Waverley.
Unlike St Stephen's Church in majors Creek, the location of the marriage of Jakob and Julia in 1877 which still serves the community, the Ebenezer Chapel is no more. In a publication titled "Centenary History of the Presbyterian Church, New South Wales" by the reverend James Cameron in 1905, the Ebenezer Congregational Chapel was received into the communion of the Presbyterian Church around 1868. The Reverend Humphreys continued to administer there until his death and it is thought that the Chapel was disposed of by the Presbyterian Church early this century. Whether the building was demolished or now serves another role is not known.
Following their marriage, Friedrich Ludwig and Catherine remained in Waverley where, on the 20 March 1858, the first Anthes child in Australia, Ellen Elizabeth, was born honoured by the names of her mother and both grandmothers. On this birth notice, Friedrich Ludwig is recorded as Fredrick Louis, the English form of his German name. On 22 November 1859 their first son, John, named after both grandfathers, was born, also in Waverley to parents Louie and Catherine. Neither was to spend much time in Sydney, for, in the following year, Fredrick Louis, as he spelt it, probably now known only as Louie, took his young family south to the Braidwood gold fields. What particular incident or circumstance prompted what appears a major decision of the time, is not known though, if Jacob had contact with his brother at this time, some collusion between the two may have taken place. Although almost ten years had passed since gold was first discovered, the continued discoveries and large quantities reportedly being extracted was a dominant feature of life in those years.
Braidwood - Araluen
The journey of the family, probably by sea to Bateman's Bay or Moruya from Waverley, approximately five years after the initial immigration, was successful for, in 1861, in Braidwood, took place the birth of their third child. This child, their second son, was named Frederick Louis after his father. it can be assumed that in braidwood, Louie, perhaps in company with his brother Jacob, undertook gold fossiking. It is likely that their skills at this task were initially quite poor but, with so much activity taking place around them, they would have learnt quickly. Louie's early attempts in that area were probably not wonderous for, between 1862 and 1864, the family moved down into the Araluen Valley where they welcomed child number four, Catherine, this naming continuing the perpetuation of both parents christian names.
By this time the eldest child, Ellen Elizabeth, was in her fifth or sixth year. the labourious traveling from Waverley to Braidwood and then onto Araluen would hardly have given the family time to settle. Catherine may have undertaken these trips pregnant and if not, certainly busy caring for tiny children. That she received attention at childbirth by midwives is almost certain and the closeness of the women to each other as they shared the hardships of the time would have been necessary for their survival. it is almost certain it was from the womenfolk that their children received their first informal education particularly in those areas not serviced by schools. Those early days in the Araluen Valley were quite harsh and it is likely that church ministers visited the Valley infrequently. Neither the birth of Frederick Louis nor Catherine is recorded on church records and the location and years of birth are equated from their later marriage and death certificates.
Bushranging had a brief moment in the region when, in March 1865, Ben Hall and his gang of three tried unsuccessfully to hold-up the gold escort on the mountain road from Araluen to Majors Creek. The Clark gang roamed the area from 1866 to 1867 raiding general stores and engaging in cattle duffing. In that period they shot dead one policeman and four special constables in two separate incidents before a more concerted effort to apprehend them was organized. Surviving members of the gang reluctantly kept an appointment with a rope in Darlinghurst in June of 1867.
The second child born in the Araluen Valley, a daughter, arrived on 25 january 1868, and she was named Susanna Amelia. This name probably derives from a sister of Louis, Christina Susanna. Susanna's birth is recorded as being in Redbank, a location within the Araluen Valley. A note on the history of the valley records "by the early 1860's there were about 1000 horses working in the claims in support of the underground works at Redbank." The last of their children was also born in Araluen in 1871, though, like Frederick Louis and Catherine before him, his birth was not officially recorded. He was named Edward Ernest, and may have been named after Eduard, one of Louie's brothers.
By this time, Ellen, the eldest child was aged thirteen but it is not known if she or her younger brothers and sisters had attended school in the valley. It is likely that the conditions, despite the great wealth being extracted, would have hampered the extent of schooling into the valley. The rugged terrain and rapid expansion of the gold seekers into these remote areas would have placed a great strain on church and State authorities to provide the services which we today take for granted.
It was shortly after the birth of the final child, Edward Ernest, that Louie and Catherine ascended from the valley through Majors Creek and Braidwood heading for Hill End. Whether there is any substance to the story of a quarrel between Jacob and Louie and an effect of the 1869 riots in the region is not known for certain. Something of significance is thought to have prompted the move to another equally remote region over difficult terrain. How they accomplished the journey can only be guessed but it is likely that it could have been by the Cobb and Co mail services as the rail service to Goulburn and Bathurst had not been completed at that time.
It is equally likely that Louie procured a horse and dray and with the assistance of his family, undertook the long journey to the Western goldfields. It may be that the journey, to avoid the mountain trails, took them north to Goulburn, through Crookwell, Tuena, Trunkey Creek and Bathurst before venturing further north from there into the Hill End Valley.The journey would have been over three hundred kilometres in length on rough tracks finishing three thousand feet up in the ranges. The trip is thought to have taken a considerable number of days if not weeks to complete. Whilst there is still no conclusive association of jacob and Louie, a suspicion that they were together in the southern goldfields exists. It is not thought, however, that any contact was made between the two brothers following Louie's departure for Hill End except if Jacob and Adam had contact with Louie at the time that Adam visited Australia around 1885. At the time of their departure, Louie and Kate spent approximately eleven years in the Braidwood - Araluen area.
By the time the family arrived in Hill end in 1872 to an extremely harsh winter, Louie and Kate were both aged in their thirty-sixth year while the children were aged about fourteen, twelve, eleven, eight, four and one year old respectively. In that year St Paul's Presbyterian Church was built, the Methodist Church was remodelled and a wooden Government school house was built. It is in this school house or the nearby Temperance Hall which catered for overflow, that the children are likely to have received their first formal education.
The Hill End of 1872 was a noisy, bustling place near the junction of the Turon and Macquarie rivers with lines of stores, twenty eight hotels, public buildings of brick construction and established mines run by public companies. Unlike the Araluen area, alluvial gold was still present, though quickly diminishing, allowing the fossikers to work either independently or in small teams in the hillsides and along the creeks and river lines. The population of Hill End and Tambarrora of 1873 was 8,700 souls comprising a mixed bag of Yorkshire and Welsh miners, French, Polish, German and Irish immigrants including families plus a large number of chinese males. In 1870, Germany had defeated France and reclaimed Alsace, resulting in ill-feeling between the French and German immigrants throughout the goldfields, even surfacing in the isolation of Hill End.
Louie and Kate soon established themselves in a section of Hill End known as Germantown, to the rear of Tambarrora and Clark Streets on sloping ground. In this location, a dozen or so families of German extraction erected small cottages, the remains of three of these are still visible today. This section of Hill End, separated from the main town by Hill End creek was established before Louie and Kate's arrival and it is not known whether Louie built his home there or moved into an existing building. The area is described as, "trim cottages, separated by narrow lanes surrounded by grape vines and fruit trees in well kept gardens." One resident is said to have supplemented his income by the sale from his garden of vegetables and vineyard produce.
Within this region a population of over twenty thousand were working the Turon fields and a number of small settlements vied for town status. Hill End, an established town, had followed the settlement of Tambarrora, a community of small area, three miles away on the Mudgee Road. It is not known what the separate populations of each town were but Hill End remained the dominant of the two and today all that remains of Tambarrora is one house. At the time that Louie and Kate arrived, alluvial pickings were in decline and the towns population had commenced its downward spiral. A horse-bus service between Hill End and Tambarrora was inaugurated in 1872 at sixpence a journey though how long it remained in service at that price and with dwindling potential passengers can only be guessed at. By 1875 Hill End / Tambarrora supported about 5000 souls and in the following year, just 3,900, while in 1883 the population had diminished to just 1,200. From 1852 until its demise as a gold-bearing site, Hill End has been regarded as a jewel among the Australian goldfields for the vast wealth extracted from its soil.
It is quite probable that Louie, after bringing his family into Hill End, commenced fossiking, As large areas were already pegged by the companies in close proximity to the town and alluvial sections had long since been worked, Louie may have found it prudent to seek wages work with one or more of the German companies operating in the town. This employment would have ensured an income and allow him to pursue his fossiking on Sundays. If this was the pattern of life for them, the burden of housekeeping, child rearing and gardening would have fallen upon Kate's shoulders. The life style must have been extremely hard for them both with long and busy days. Survive it they did, remaining in Germantown until into the next century.
Other than what can be assumed of life in Hill End there seems no knowledge of early journeys undertaken out of the town by the family. The town was joined by road to Mudgee in the north and Bathurst to the south and serviced by regular mail coach and delivery companies. Cobb and Co were the principal movers having established their headquarters in Bathurst from Bendigo in 1862, remaining there until 1912, commencing a coach service to Hill End in 1872. This journey of 53 miles took 12 hours at a cost of one pound per passenger and replaced a service which covered the route at 12 shillings and sixpence a passenger. Other means of transport were by foot, horse or dray. One very fit young man is recorded as arriving at the Bathurst depot a few moments after the 4am departure for Hill End and decided to jog after the coach. At each of the coach stopping points to change teams, he was in time to see the coach lights draw away. After running until exhausted and by taking numerous cross-country short cuts, he finally rested at a farmlet, completing the journey on foot the next day to commence a days work in the mines. A married couple walked the 106 mile round trip every fortnight for provisions. Perhaps a savings for the period on their provisions would have allowed them to buy a horse instead but thier fitness would ahve suffered. It can be assumed that Louie and Kate undertook the trip to Bathurst, possibly accompanied by their children, on at least a few occasions.
In 1876, the railway line from Sydney had been extended to Bathurst from Lithgow where it had previously terminated in 1869. The advent of the railway was to impact greatly on the workforce of the day, by commencing a massive building of track at a time when alluvial gold was disappearing. As tracklaying, goods loading and rollingstock maintenance were labour intensive, many men of the fields were attracted away from the more isolated areas for more civilised parts with the promise of a regular wage.
During these years Louie and Kate saw their children mature, join the workforce, marry and move from the district. In 1877, their eldest daughter, Ellen Elizabeth, then aged 19 years, married in Hill End. Her marriage there was followed in 1880 by that of her brother John, then aged 21 years, who was working in the town as a miner. In 1883, Catherine, the fourth born child, then aged 20 years, married in Bathurst, the first of the remaining four children to leave and marry outside Hill End. Frederick Louis, the third eldest child, had left the town to join the railways and was in Nyngan when he married in 1885. The youngest two children, Susanna Amelia and Edward Ernest, travelled further afield to marry. Susanna married in Sydney in 1891 when she was aged 23 years and Edward married in Bourke in 1897 when he was aged 26 years. Edward was traveling as a leather salesman when he married and, following the death in Bourke of his first wife, remarried in Newcastle in 1901. Just as it is not known whether or how frequently Louie or Kate traveled out of Hill End, it is not known how often if ever, their children returned to Hill End for visits after their marriages.
Louie and Kate's eldest son, John, remained in Hill End for four years after his marriage in 1880. During that time Louie and Kate were able to join in the birth of two of their grandchildren. The first, Percival James Cecil was born in Tambaroora in June 1881, and the second, Olga Catherine in September 1883. The following year, John, his wife Mary and their two children left Hill End to settle temporarily in Trangie before moving to Rylstone.
The marriage activity of their children had commenced in 1877 and continued until 1897 when Louie and Kate were then aged about 61 years. Life continued in much the same way for them minus the presence of their children. In 1901 Federation was celebrated throughout Australia and in 1902, Louie, now aged 65 years, applied for and was granted naturalization as a British citizen. (inert Louie naturalization scan Picture !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!) In his application, Louie was sponsored by Alfred Pyremont who owned a produce store in the town and who had served for fifteen years as an alderman on the Hill End Borough Council which had been formed in 1873. The application further stated that Louie had voted in all elections for the past 40 years and, under the Electoral Act of Federation would, as a non-British citizen, be disqualified for doing so in the future. It was further noted in the application that he would remain ineligible for the old age pension for a further ten years after naturalization.
Being aged 65 years at the time of his application, Louie would be aged 75 years before his eligibility for a pension would be approved. It is not known whether Kate was eligible for a pension at age 60 years but it is known that Louie continued to fossik in the area for a number of years after Federation. In his account of life in Hill End between 1900 and 1911, Harry Hodge notes that "Its unmarked graves had been forgotten until a coffin was revealed by the sluicing operations of Anthes, also a German, in the first decade of this century." This cemetery was on the side of a hill quite near the houses of Germantown. a 1909 photograph with a note from Louie on the reverse, thought to be taken outside Louie and Kate's house, was sent by them to a number of their grandchildren (insert 10)
It is likely that Ellen's health had started to decline within a few years of that photograph being taken and it also likely that Louie was having difficulty with heavy work. By early 1912 Louie would have qualified for his pension and it was the same year that they were to learn of the tragic death of their daughter Catherine. Some time prior to 1919, Louie and Kate had bid farewell to their home in Germantown and moved to Bathurst to live with their eldest daughter Ellen and her family. While there they were to hear of the death of their son Frederick Louis and, two months later on 23 September 1919, Catherine Ellen (Kate) Anthes (nee Neil), daughter of coppersmith John Neil and Ellen Noonan, passed away at the age of 83 years.
Louie, now well into his retirement, learnt of the death of his son John, in 1920 and the death of John's son, Percival James Cecil, whose birth he had been present for in Tamboroora. It is known that Louie had visited Lithgow on at least one occasion in the early 1920's probably traveling from Bathurst to Lithgow by rail. Later he was to move to Scarborough on the south coast, where he was cared for, in his declining years, by his youngest daughter Susanna Amelia and her family. From there he was placed in the LIdcombe State Hispital and Home where, on the 21 August 1929, aged in his ninety-third year, Freidrich Ludwig (Louie) Anthes passed away. Louie and Kate were buried in the Church of England sections of Bathurst and Rookwood cemeteries respectively. A structure of their immediate family is insert 11. By 1929 their descendents numbered in excess of sixty eight persons.
After Louie and Kate
Although the record of descendants of Frederick Louis and Catherine Ellen is incomplete, a total of 143 children, covering six generations, are known to have been born and Anthes since the birth of their first child, Ellen Elizabeth. Additional to those numbers are a further known 134 children born into the name of the husband of an Anthes born girl. The unknown Anthes births may total between twenty and forty extra children in the latter generations, again being approximately divided between males and females. Whilst the earlier generations produced average family sizes of between five and eleven children, the latter average family sizes are between one and four children, a reflection of social change affecting birth numbers.
The following final part of this project gives the known descendants of Frederick and Catherine's children, Ellen Elizabeth, John, Frederick, Louis, Catherine, Susanna Amelia and Edward Ernest. The first section covers the family of each of the three daughters, the next section deals with the known families of the two younger sons, Frederick Louis and Edward Ernest while the last section deals with the families descendant from John. The descendant families of John are the largest and are further broken down into the families descendant from his children.