Anthes Family Tree : The Family of Jakob (Jacob)
No record of Jakob has yet been located which positively shows his activities between his birth in Frankfurt and his marriage in Australia. It is probable that he left Germany around 1854 but a limited search of shipping records by the staff at the New South Wales Archive Office failed to locate his arrival details. They mentioned that a large quantity of unindexed records were held which could be viewed by private researchers. No approach has been made to the Hamburg authorities to check departure details. An additional search was conducted by the Archives staff in Naturalization records but no record of application by Jakob was found The first probable record of him in Australia appears on the State marriage records, which details the marriage in Sydney in 1857 of his brother Friedrich Ludwig to Catherine Ellen Neil. A witness to that marriage is shown as Saclo C anthes, an almost certain corruption of Jakob Anthes.
Prior to the formation of the State Births, Deaths and Marriages registry in the late 1850's, almost all previous such events were recorded independently by church, medical, prison and other authorities. After the formation of the State registry, all such events were required to be notified to the State office. State clerks accessed the handwritten records of the minor agencies and transcribed the entries of those registries into the State record books. It is quite possible that the clerk transcribing Jakob's name from the church register mistook the handwritten name of Jakob Anthes to be Saclo C Anthes. To check that theory, a number of approaches were made to church archivists in Sydney but, to date, the church register has not been found.
The first positive state record of Jakob in Australia shows his marriage to Julia Grant in St Stephen's Anglican church, Major's Creek on 18-12-1877, three months after the marriage of Ellen Elizabeth, eldest child of Friedrich Ludwig and Catherine Ellen, in Hill End. On that record he is noted as a bachelor, a resident of Major's Creek, and his occupation is lated as a miner. At the time of his marriage, Jakob was twelve days past his 42nd birthday.
On this record, the spelling of his name is shown as Jacob. On three later occasions, when recording the birth details of his children, he is recorded as Frederick J., and Frederick Jacob Anthes. On the death certificate of one of those sons in 1974 he is again referred to as Frederick Jacob, another example of the odd, repeated use of a christian name within the early families. In this case, jacob seems to have adopted the name Frederick by his own choice, perhaps in memory of his father, Johann Friedrich. Interesting also is that his brother, Friedrich Ludwig, gradually dispensed with his first name, giving prominence to his second christian name and is remembered as Louie rather than Frederick. The change from the letter 'k' in Jakob to the letter 'c' in Jacob and the spelling of Frederick is repeated in all known records and is probably a preference of clerkss when recording foreign names.
Jacob's wife was Julia Grant who is noted as a spinster and whose usual place or residence was Berlang. Julia was aged 24 years, born in Araluen on 22-7-1853, the daughter of Primson Francis Grant, a gold digger, and Julia, nee Collins, who has passed away on 12-5-1876. As with jacob, little is known of Julia's activities from records but it can be assumed that as the daughter of a gold digger, born in Araluen, she had spent all her life in that area. Whether she had brothers and sisters, had attended school or had worked for wages prior to her marriage is not known.
Jacob's brother, Friedrich Ludwig and family are known to have been in the Braidwood / Aruluen area from about 1860 until 1871 or, more likely, 1872 when they left for Hill End. There is a possibility that Jacob may have gone to the Braidwood area after his brother's marriage in 1857 and later encouraged Friedrich Ludwig to join him there. Alternatively, Jacob may have worked in Sydney after his arrival there and both brothers left together to work the goldfields. Whichever was the case, no known record positively shows them ever together.
A family story indicates that Jacob and his brother quarreled and that Jacob had returned to Germany to join the army. While it is possible that the brothers quarreled, it is unlikely that Jacob could have left for Germany and returned between 1857 and his appearance in Majors Creek around 1877. Once in Germany, there would seem little reason for him to return to Australia. Similarly, in 1893, the last time he is recorded, at the death of a daughter, he would have been aged 57 years or so and far too old for military service.
If such a quarrel too place it is likely to have been immediately prior to the move of Friedrich Ludwig and his family to Hill End. The remark that Jacob had gone to Germany may have been an excuse by Friedrich Ludwig to his children to explain why they no longer had contact with their Uncle Jacob. It is also likely that following the move of his brother and family, Jacob, now in his late thirties, felt a loneliness that urged him to seek companionship. This probably led him to establishing a relationship with Julia, the daughter of a golddigger with whom he had been previously or was currently working.
Major's Creek, the town in which they were to wed is approximately 16 kilometres south of Braidwood which is on the Queanbeyan-Bateman's Bay road. Araluen, Julia's birhtplace, is approximately 5 kilomteres from Major's Creek down a steep mountain in the Araluen Valley. Berlang and Redbank are thought to be small settlements near Major's Creek and Araluen, perhaps in the Araluen Valley. Gold was discovered in the surrounding areas in early 1851, then in October that year by a Mrs Baxter at major's Creek. Edward Hargraves, who had discovered gold in Bathurst in February 1851, had been called to assess the likelihood of gold in the area in September that year but had produced an unfavourable report, one which he had to reassess just one month later.
A popular route into the Braidwood fields was by sea from Sydney to Bateman's Bay rather than the long road overhaul. From Bateman's Bay the majority of miners took the trek across the Great Dividing Range by dray or coach. Access down to the Araluen Valley had to be done on foot, with provisions lowered into the valley by means of slides and ropes.
Individual alluvial mining was done from 1851 until the late 1860's when companies were formed, initially by diggers themselves, to follow the line of reefs as the alluvial gold ran out. In 1856 an Araluen digger (labourer) for a company was paid 3 pounds 5 shillings a week of six days with provisions at a reasonable rate. A report of that year states; 'the diggers appear perfectly satisfied, they have made themselves comfortable in their huts and gardens, are quite orderly and pay their licences without the least reluctance'. One can only guess that their lack of reluctance indicates that their gold pickings were more than adequate for their immediate needs.
In 1861 the miners in the area, from licences issued, numbered 4,427 makes of which 1,135 were Chinese. Although no major incidents were recorded between the different races as occurred at Lambing Flats, the Chinese were regarded with suspicion and some jealousy. This jealousy and suspicion was mainly due to the fact that they brought no women with them, their frugal lifestyle and their eternal hard work which gave them occasional success. During the 1860's the Araluen Valley suffered at least three devastating floods which washed away many buildings and diggers huts with loss of life.
In 1869 riots broke out among the individual miners and those employed by the companies working the reefs. This was caused by the run-out of alluvial gold with the consequent drop in income to the individual miners coupled with the new wealth of the company reef miners. It was shortly after this that Friedrich Ludwig and his family left the area while Jacob remained. It is a thought that perhaps Jacob may have been a company digger while Friedrich Ludwig was an individual digger. The ill-feeling of the riots may have caused a schizm between the two. The run-out of alluvial gold saw many other diggers leave the Braidwood fields and by the 1871 census there were only 1,533 souls in Araluen, in the 1890's but, as the reefs ran dry, this activity declined. New systems of gold extraction saw a revival in 1900 and these fields continued until ceasing permanently in 1939.
Judging by the birth location of their children, Jacob and Julia resided and worked in Majors Creek until about 1879 when they literally took the plunge down the valley to Araluen. Jacob worked in the valley for eight years, most probably as a company digger, before returning up the mountain to settle again in Majors Creek for the next four years at least. The conclusion of details of his family birth and death records ends further reference to Jacob and additional information on his and Julia's lives requires more research.
Birth and death records of their children have been gained from State microfilm records, church baptism records and from the records researched by the Braidwood Historical Society. As Jacob married twenty years after his brother, his children are of the same generation as the grand-children of his brother. Eight births have been noted though there is the possibility that there may have been one other. Some variations occur between the records but the following summary of their children is thought to be reasonably correct though some anomolies remain.
Two deaths are recorded which appear to relate to the last two daughters born in Majors Creek. The first records the death of Maud in Majors Creek on the 24.1.1889. Maud is most likely Gladdys Muriel, Maud being a variation of Muriel. The second records the death of Agnes in 1893.
Although no further record is known of Jacob following the record of Maud's death in 1893 it may be assumed that he continued to work in the fields for a few more years. The demise of the workings late in the 1890's may have seen him revert to alluvial mining for a short time or look for other labouring tasks in the area. By 1900 he would have been aged 65 years and probably not entitled to a pension and one is left to speculate how the coped by assistance from their working children. A search of the death record of Jacob has been done on microfilm records up until 1901 and from 1902-1926 through the NSW and Queensland Birth, Death and Marriages offices with no success.
The final chapter on their lives is found in the death certificate of Julia (Anthus) who passed away in Stockton, Newcastle on 5.7.1926 aged 72 years. This certificate is quite vague in detail having no information on her marriage, place of birth, nor husbands details. Four children are recorded as surviving her though others may have if the vagueness of the certificate reflects that no relative was present when the details were compiled. The surviving children are recorded as : Edward of North Narrabri, Mrs Wallace of Castlereagh Street Sydney, Mrs E.A Hodge of Riley Street and Jacob (Anthus) of Macquarie Hotel Sydney and unknown children deceased. Julia was buried in the Church of England cemetery in Sandgate.
Interesting is the reference to Mrs Wallace and Mrs E.A Hodge. Gertrude, the eldest daughter is recorded as marrying a Mr Vallance and Wallace may be a corruption of that name. Mrs E.A Hodge is most likely to have been Eleanor (Helena) Agnes, previously recorded as deceased in 1893. The wife of a son of Edward Conrad thought that he husbands aunts and uncles were John, Frederick (Jacob), Gertrude and Nellie. Nellie is a variation of Eleanor. She also added, in 1981, that a niece of Edward Conrad was Marion, living in Lismore, who had married Frank Mansfield. Marion was thought to be quite elderly then.
Known information on the children of Jacob and Julia is :
There is a record of a Robert John Anthes, born about 1918, who was living in Nerang, outside Brisbane, about 1982. Contact with a Mrs L Anthes in 1989 revealed that she had been married to a son of Robert John for three years. She thought that Robert John had been passed away for some years. No other information was given but it is thought that Robert John and his family are descendant of one of Jacob's sons.
The full extent of the families descendant from Jacob and Julia has not yet been established but it is thought that they are confined to New South Wales and Queensland. it is most probable that this group of families is not very extensive judging by the greater number of descendants of Friedrich Ludwig that have been identified by the same amount of minimal research. it may prove that there were very few male descendants compared to the descendant daughters. No Anthes families have been noted in Tasmania, Victoria nor South Australia and the one family in each of Western Australia and the Northern Territory are known to be descendant from Friedrich Ludwig and Catharine.
The reason for the disbursement of Jacob, Julia and their children from the Braidwood area to Sydney, Newcastle and Narrabri between the late 1890's until the death of Julia in 1926 is not known. It can be hoped that some members of those families or others may one day come forward with some answers to fill the gaps and perhaps some photographic images to give a glimpse of their lives.